This is an awesome and way more difficult than it looks lunge variation. You get stability training, lateral chain activation, hip mobility, and motor control all in one! Thanks again to Chris Johnson for continuing to innovate!

Turmeric, also known as the golden spice, is a tall plant that grows in Asia and Central America.
It gives curry its yellow color and has been used in traditional Indian medicine for thousands of years to treat various health conditions.
Studies support its use and show that it can benefit your health.
But coupling turmeric with black pepper may enhance its effects.
This article reviews the potential health benefits of combining turmeric and black pepper.

In recent years, research has confirmed that turmeric has medicinal properties (1).
And while most people think of it as nothing but a seasoning, black pepper can benefit health as well.
Both turmeric and black pepper have key active ingredients that contribute to their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and disease-fighting qualities.

Curcumin in Turmeric

The key compounds in turmeric are called curcuminoids. Curcumin itself is the most active ingredient and appears to be the most important.
As a polyphenol, curcumin has several advantages to health. It’s a strong antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antibacterial and anti-fungal properties (12).
However, one of the greatest downfalls of curcumin is that it’s not well absorbed in the body (1).

Piperine in Black Pepper

Black pepper comes from black peppercorns.
It contains the bioactive compound piperine, which is similar to capsaicin, the medicinal component found in chili powder and cayenne pepper (3).
Peperine has been shown to help relieve nausea, headaches and poor digestion and also has anti-inflammatory properties (456).
One of the most significant benefits of piperine may be its ability to boost the absorption of certain compounds in the digestion process (27).
SUMMARYCurcumin in turmeric and piperine in black pepper have been shown to improve health due to their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and disease-fighting qualities.

Unfortunately, the curcumin in turmeric is poorly absorbed into the bloodstream. As a result, you could be missing out on its advantages to health.
However, adding black pepper can help. Research supports that combining the piperine in black pepper with the curcumin in turmeric enhances curcumin absorption by up to 2,000% (278).
One study showed that it only took 20 mg of piperine to 2 grams of curcumin to elicit this response (8).
Piperine improves the bioavailability of curcumin, meaning that it’s more available to be absorbed and used in your body.
There are currently two theories on how this works.
First, piperine may relax the intestinal wall allowing larger molecules like curcumin to pass through and be absorbed (9).
Second, it may slow down liver metabolism of curcumin enough that your body can absorb it more effectively (1011).
As a result of both actions, more curcumin is absorbed, allowing it to function at an optimal level.
SUMMARYThe piperine found in black pepper enhances curcumin absorption, making it more readily available to be used by your body.

While curcumin and piperine each have their own health benefits, they’re even better together.

Fights Inflammation and Helps Reduce Pain

Turmeric’s curcumin has strong anti-inflammatory properties.
In fact, it’s so potent that some studies have shown it to match the power of some anti-inflammatory drugs, without the negative side effects (121314).
Studies also demonstrate that turmeric may play a role in preventing and treating arthritis, a disease characterized by joint inflammation and pain (151617).
Curcumin’s anti-inflammatory properties are often praised for reducing pain and temporary discomfort.
Piperine has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic properties as well. It helps desensitize a specific pain receptor in your body, which can further reduce feelings of discomfort (181920).
When combined, curcumin and piperine are a powerful inflammation-fighting duo that can help reduce discomfort and pain.
Can Help Prevent Cancer
Curcumin shows promise in not only treating but even preventing cancer (2122).
Test-tube studies suggest that it can decrease cancer growth, development and spread at the molecular level. It could also contribute to the death of cancerous cells (23242526).
Piperine seems to play a role in the death of certain cancer cells as well, which can decrease your risk of tumor formation, while other research indicates it, too, might inhibit the growth of cancerous cells (2728).
One study showed that curcumin and piperine, both separately and in combination, interrupted the self-renewal process of breast stem cells. This is important, as this process is where breast cancer originates (29).
Further studies point to curcumin and piperine having protective effects against additional cancers, including prostate, pancreatic, colorectal and more (22232730).

Aids in Digestion

Indian medicine has relied on turmeric to help with digestion for thousands of years. Modern studies support its use, showing that it can help reduce gut spasms and flatulence (31).
Both turmeric and piperine have been shown to enhance the activity of digestive enzymes in the gut, which helps your body process food more quickly and easily (32).
Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory properties of both turmeric and piperine may aid in reducing gut inflammation, which can help with digestion.
SUMMARYWhen combined, curcumin and piperine tend to have a greater effect on inflammation, digestion, reducing pain and fighting cancer.

Curcumin and piperine are generally considered safe (323334).
There are no official recommendations for consumption of either, and the maximum tolerable intake has not been identified.
Certain people may experience side effects like nausea, headache and skin rashes after taking curcumin in large doses. It’s thus important to follow the dosage recommendations on the supplement packaging (3536).
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has set the acceptable dietary intake for curcumin as 1.4 mg per pound (3 mg/kg) of body weight per day, or approximately 245 mg for a 175-pound (80-kg) person (37).
In Indian culture, turmeric and black pepper are commonly consumed in tea, often combined with olive oil, coconut oil, honey and ginger.
Because turmeric is fat-soluble, consuming it with fat may increase absorption.
However, to fully reap the medicinal benefits of curcumin, it’s best consumed in supplement form with a pinch of black pepper.
SUMMARYTurmeric and black pepper are considered safe and can be consumed without serious side effects by most people. While they can be added to food and drinks, supplements typically provide the greater benefit.

Turmeric and black pepper each have health benefits, due to the compounds curcumin and piperine.
As piperine enhances curcumin absorption in the body by up to 2,000%, combining the spices magnifies their effects.
They may reduce inflammation and pain, treat and prevent cancer and improve digestion, particularly in supplement form.
If you’re looking to fully enjoy the advantages of turmeric and black pepper, consider mixing these spices for best results.
An evidence-based nutrition article from our experts at Authority Nutrition.

Chris Johnson demonstrating a hamstring exercise good for hamstring tendinopathy progressions. Check it out and follow him on instagram @zerenPT

A good night's sleep is incredibly important for your health.
In fact, it’s just as important as eating healthy and exercising.
Unfortunately, the Western environment is interfering with natural sleep patterns.
People are now sleeping less than they did in the past, and sleep quality has decreased as well.
Here are 10 reasons why good sleep is important.
Poor sleep is strongly linked to weight gain.
People with short sleep duration tend to weigh significantly more than those who get adequate sleep (12).
In fact, short sleep duration is one of the strongest risk factors for obesity.
In one extensive review study, children and adults with short sleep duration were 89% and 55% more likely to become obese, respectively (3).
The effect of sleep on weight gain is believed to be mediated by numerous factors, including hormones and motivation to exercise (4).
If you’re trying to lose weight, getting quality sleep is absolutely crucial.
SUMMARYShort sleep duration is associated with a drastically increased risk of weight gain and obesity, in both children and adults.

Studies show that sleep-deprived individuals have a bigger appetite and tend to eat more calories.
Sleep deprivation disrupts the daily fluctuations in appetite hormones and is believed to cause poor appetite regulation (25).
This includes higher levels of ghrelin, the hormone that stimulates appetite, and reduced levels of leptin, the hormone that suppresses appetite (6).
SUMMARYPoor sleep affects hormones that regulate appetite. Those who get adequate sleep tend to eat fewer calories than those who don't.

Sleep is important for various aspects of brain function.
This includes cognition, concentration, productivity and performance (7).
All of these are negatively affected by sleep deprivation.
A study on medical interns provides a good example.
Interns on a traditional schedule with extended work hours of more than 24 hours made 36% more serious medical errors than interns on a schedule that allowed more sleep (8).
Another study found that short sleep can negatively impact some aspects of brain function to a similar degree as alcohol intoxication (9).
On the other hand, good sleep has been shown to improve problem-solving skills and enhance memory performance of both children and adults (101112).
SUMMARYGood sleep can maximize problem-solving skills and enhance memory. Poor sleep has been shown to impair brain function.

Sleep has been shown to enhance athletic performance.
In a study on basketball players, longer sleep was shown to significantly improve speed, accuracy, reaction times and mental wellbeing (13).
Less sleep duration has also been associated with poor exercise performance and functional limitation in elderly women.
A study in over 2,800 women found that poor sleep was linked to slower walking, lower grip strength and greater difficulty performing independent activities (14).
SUMMARYLonger sleep has been shown to improve many aspects of athletic and physical performance.

It’s known that sleep quality and duration can have a major effect on many health risk factors.
These are the factors believed to drive chronic diseases, including heart disease.
A review of 15 studies found that people who don’t get enough sleep are at far greater risk of heart disease or stroke than those who sleep 7–8 hours per night (15).
SUMMARYSleeping less than 7–8 hours per night is linked to an increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

Experimental sleep restriction affects blood sugar and reduces insulin sensitivity (1617).
In a study in healthy young men, restricting sleep to four hours per night for six nights in a row caused symptoms of prediabetes (18).
These symptoms resolved after one week of increased sleep duration.
Poor sleep habits are also strongly linked to adverse effects on blood sugar in the general population.
Those sleeping less than six hours per night have repeatedly been shown to be at an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (1920).
SUMMARYSleep deprivation can cause prediabetes in healthy adults in as little as six days. Many studies show a strong link between short sleep duration and type 2 diabetes.

Mental health issues, such as depression, are strongly linked to poor sleep quality and sleeping disorders.
It has been estimated that 90% of people with depression complain about sleep quality (21).
Poor sleep is even associated with an increased risk of death by suicide (22).
Those with sleeping disorders like insomnia or obstructive sleep apnea also report significantly higher rates of depression than those without (23).
SUMMARYPoor sleeping patterns are strongly linked to depression, particularly for those with a sleeping disorder.

Even a small loss of sleep has been shown to impair immune function (24).
One large two-week study monitored the development of the common cold after giving people nasal drops with the cold virus (25).
They found that those who slept less than seven hours were almost three times more likely to develop a cold than those who slept eight hours or more.
If you often get colds, ensuring that you get at least eight hours of sleep per night could be very helpful. Eating more garlic can help as well.
SUMMARYGetting at least eight hours of sleep can improve your immune function and help fight the common cold.

Sleep can have a major effect on inflammation in your body.
In fact, sleep loss is known to activate undesirable markers of inflammation and cell damage.
Poor sleep has been strongly linked to long-term inflammation of the digestive tract, in disorders known as inflammatory bowel diseases (2627).
One study observed that sleep-deprived people with Crohn's disease were twice as likely to relapse as patients who slept well (28).
Researchers are even recommending sleep evaluation to help predict outcomes in individuals with long-term inflammatory issues (27).
SUMMARYSleep affects your body's inflammatory responses. Poor sleep is strongly linked to inflammatory bowel diseases and can increase your risk of disease recurrence.

Sleep loss reduces your ability to interact socially.
Several studies confirmed this using emotional facial recognition tests (2930).
One study found that people who had not slept had a reduced ability to recognize expressions of anger and happiness (31).
Researchers believe that poor sleep affects your ability to recognize important social cues and process emotional information.
SUMMARYSleep deprivation may reduce your social skills and ability to recognize people’s emotional expressions.

Along with nutrition and exercise, good sleep is one of the pillars of health.
You simply can not achieve optimal health without taking care of your sleep.
An evidence-based nutrition article from our experts at Authority Nutrition.

You may know turmeric primarily as a spice, but it’s also used in Ayurvedic medicine, a holistic approach to health that originated in India over 3,000 years ago (1).
Turmeric supplements are now widely available for medicinal use, but knowing how much to take can be confusing.
Here’s a look at the uses and benefits of turmeric, effective doses and safety concerns.

Turmeric Dosage
Curcumin, a potent plant chemical in turmeric, is believed to have powerful anti-inflammatoryeffects (23).
Many studies indicate that chronic, low-grade inflammation may be a key factor in developing conditions like heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and cancer (4567).
In test-tube and animal studies, curcumin has been shown to block certain biological pathways leading to inflammation (8).
The effects of turmeric and curcumin have also been investigated by randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the gold standard of research.
While some were inconclusive, many produced significant results.
For instance, several studies found that turmeric may reduce knee pain and improve function in people with osteoarthritis — one even suggests it may work as well as ibuprofen for reducing pain (91011).
In another RCT, 120 overweight individuals took turmeric supplements for three months. On average, total cholesterol was reduced by 32%, “bad” LDL cholesterol by 42% and triglycerides by 39% (12).
Turmeric may also improve quality of life for people with chronic kidney disease who are experiencing itchy skin. In one RCT, those taking turmeric had decreased markers of inflammation and reported less itching (13).
Though less conclusive, other RCTs indicate turmeric may play a beneficial role in heart disease, diabetes prevention, surgery recovery and irritable bowel syndrome (14151617).
SUMMARYTurmeric contains curcumin, a potent plant chemical with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Many suggested benefits of turmeric are supported by evidence from randomized controlled trials — the gold standard of research.

Studies typically use doses of 500–2,000 mg of turmeric per day, often in the form of an extract with a curcumin concentration that is much higher than the amounts naturally occurring in foods.
For instance, the average Indian diet provides around 2,000–2,500 mg of turmeric (60–100 mg of curcumin) per day. The same amount in extract form may pack up to 1,900–2,375 mg of curcumin (18).
In other words, turmeric spices contain around 3% curcumin, compared to 95% curcumin in extracts (19).
Nonetheless, turmeric may still have benefits when used as a spice.
One observational study in older adults positively associated curry consumption with cognitive health (20).
While there is no official consensus on effective turmeric or curcumin doses, the following have been used in research with promising results (91213):
  • For osteoarthritis: 500 mg of turmeric extract twice daily for 2–3 months.
  • For high cholesterol: 700 mg of turmeric extract twice daily for 3 months.
  • For itchy skin: 500 mg of turmeric three times daily for 2 months.
High doses of turmeric and curcumin are not recommended long-term since research confirming their safety is lacking.
However, the World Health Organization (WHO) has determined 1.4 mg per pound (0–3 mg/kg) of body weight an acceptable daily intake (18).
Keep in mind, all herbal supplements should be used with caution. Always notify your health care provider of any supplements you’re taking, including turmeric and curcumin.
SUMMARYResearch indicates that turmeric doses of 500–2,000 mg per day may be effective. However, high doses are not recommended long-term.

Although turmeric is believed to be safe for most individuals, certain people may have to avoid it.
These conditions warrant extreme caution:
  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding: There is not enough research to determine if turmeric supplements are safe for pregnant or breastfeeding women.
  • Gallbladder disease: Turmeric may cause the gallbladder to contract, worsening symptoms (21).
  • Kidney stones: It’s high in oxalate, which can bind with calcium and cause kidney stones formation (22).
  • Bleeding disorders: It may slow the ability of your blood to clot, which can worsen bleeding problems (23).
  • Diabetes: It may cause blood sugar levels to drop too low (24).
  • Iron-deficiency: It may interfere with iron absorption (25).
In addition, turmeric supplements can interact with certain medications such as blood thinners and diabetes medications (2426).
However, turmeric seems to be safe under these circumstances in the amounts typically eaten in food.
SUMMARYTurmeric supplements are unsafe if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or have certain conditions. Supplements can also interact with blood thinners and diabetes medications. However, turmeric seems to be safe when used as a spice in food.

For short periods of time, doses of up to 8 grams per day have been used in research without any toxic effects.
Still, side effects have been reported.
The more common adverse effects include allergic reactions, stomach pain, diarrhea, constipation, nausea and vomiting (2728).
In one severe instance, an individual taking high doses of 1,500–2,250 mg twice daily experienced an abnormal heart rhythm (29).
More studies are needed to determine possible additional adverse effects associated with long-term use.
SUMMARYMinimal adverse effects of taking turmeric supplements short-term have been reported, but more long-term studies are needed.

Extracts are the most potent form of turmeric supplements.
They’re concentrated, packing up to 95% of curcumin. In contrast, powders and spices can contain as little as 3% of curcuminoids (19).
What’s more, extracts are less likely to be contaminated with other substances such as heavy metals (19).
Whatever form of turmeric you choose, consider combining your supplement with black pepper. Black pepper contains the compound piperine, which has been shown to increase curcumin absorption by 2,000% (1930).
And, as always, make sure you buy from a reputable brand.
Consider supplements that have been tested by a third party, such as NSF International, Informed Choice or the US Pharmacopeial Convention (USP).
These companies ensure you are getting what’s on the label and that your product is free from contaminants.
SUMMARYTurmeric extracts are highly concentrated with curcumin and less likely to be contaminated with other substances. All supplements should be bought from a reputable source.

Research suggests 500–2,000 mg of turmeric per day may have potential benefits, particularly in extract form.
The exact dose may depend on the medical condition, for which you seek help, though official dosing recommendations are unavailable.
The risk of side effects is minimal but turmeric supplements are unsuitable for some people.
As with any supplement, turmeric should be used with caution and you should discuss its use with your doctor.
An evidence-based nutrition article from our experts at Authority Nutrition.